Robert Gange's Events of Instruction


Robert M. Gange' is the considered to be the pioneer of the instructional learning design theory. His theories have had a profound affect not only on our American schools, but he also influenced training in the military, (pilot training in our Air Force during WWII), and industrial training. In his article titled "Education Technology and the Learning Process" (Education Researcher, 1974), Gange' defined learning as "the set of planned external events which influence the process of learning and thus promote learning." Stated plainly, learners have different types or levels of learning; not everyone learns in the same way; therefore it is important to know your learners. Do not assume all learners have the prerequisite skills necessary to make learning less difficult for the student.

Gange' outilnes nine instructional events and corresponding cognitive processes. These events of instruction and their relation to processes of leaning are as follows:

Instructional Event Cognitive Processes
  1. gaining attention reception of patterson of neural impulses
  2. informing learners of the objective activating a process of executive control (stimulating recall of prior learning)
  3. stimulating recall of prequisite learned capabilities retrieval of prior leaning to working memory
  4. presenting the stimulus material emphasizing features for selective perception
  5. providing learning guidance semantic encoding: cues for retrieval
  6. eliciting performance activating response organization
  7. providing feedback about performance correctness establishing reinforcement
  8. assessing the performance activating retrieval; making reinforcement possible
  9. enhancing retention and transfer providing cues and strategies for retrieva



    ASSURE Model
    What is ASSURE?
    • Analyze Learners
    • State Objectives
    • Select Methods, Media, and Materials
    • Utilize Media and Materials
    • Require Learner Participation
    • Evaluate and Revise

    Jacqueline Wombles Penstone